aqa a level psychology memory essays

This resource contains 9 essays on the topic of ‘Memory’ in the AQA Psychology A-Level (new spec). Brenda Milner celebrates her 101st birthday! Participants were then asked questions on whether they recalled these stories and results found 29% of the fake stories were recalled by participants believing them to be true. Also, such explanations are not able to explain why retrieval failure cannot be explained with cue dependent forgetting for activities such as riding a bike, suggesting retrieval failure as a theory for forgetting is oversimplified and incomplete. This resource hasn't been reviewed. This has also helped in cognitive interviews to help people recall information for witness testimonies. The fact that it is impossible to test for an item as having been encoded or not means we cannot fully test the encoding specificity principle. Possible exam questions on the Retrieval Failure include: Here is some good news; compared to the old specification, the new AS and A-level psychology content you’re required to know for factors affecting eyewitness testimony have reduced. Such studies involving violence (Loftus/ Clifford) to heighten anxiety levels also raise ethical concerns due to the possible psychological harm they can cause from observing such events. Forster et al found supporting evidence for this in one study where participants who thought they were watching a real-life robbery and believed their responses would have an impact on an upcoming trial actually be more accurate in their recall. Kane et al (2000) found individuals with bigger working memory spans were less susceptible to proactive interference when testing recall using three-word lists compared to individuals deemed to have less working memory spans. Boston Spa, Due to immediate access of instant downloads, no refunds will be offered. Participants learnt material either drunk or sober and found participants struggled with recall more when trying to retrieve the information in a state that is different from the time of encoding. Possible exam questions on improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and the cognitive interview: When are the GCSE exams for 2020?Which exam board are you studying? This gives you - the customer - a clear understanding They found more interference occurred between two visual tasks compared to a visual and spatial task suggesting both were separate components with the visual cache dealing with colour and form and the inner scribe dealing with spatial relationships. Forgetting memory questions. More interestingly real-life studies outside the laboratory setting by Yuille and Cutshall have found that witnesses to real events tended to have accurate recall even many months after witnessing events with misleading questions having little effect suggesting previous findings by Loftus into leading questions may possibly be limited to laboratory settings. Results found the words that implied a stronger collision resulted in greater average estimates of speeds from participants. Also, research suggests age may be a confounding variable in itself when it comes to leading questions with Warren et al finding younger children were more susceptible to influence to misleading information than older. This includes performance, physiological arousal and also cognitive anxiety too. password protection. The way an event is remembered can also be altered or contaminated by discussing events with others and/or being questioned repeatedly. Report every detail regardless of how trivial it may seem. She conducted groundbreaking work into how eyewitness testimony is easily manipulated and unreliable. AQA A LEVEL Psychology topic essays: Social influence Page 5 Jenness (1932) provides research support for the role of informational social influence. This is because the recollection of one small memory may act as a retrieval cue for other important memories. Share: Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin Share on Google Share by email. If rehearsed and processed deep enough (e.g. If a cue aids retrieval then it could be argued to have been encoded in the memory however if it does not then it could be argued that it wasn’t encoded in memory as a cue. The model is supported by amnesia cases as patients have been found to either lose their short-term memory or long-term memory abilities but not both. The Central Executive is the main component and coordinates the other “slave systems” and ensures they don’t go astray. Proactive interference can explain this as earlier consonants entered the long-term memory and thus interfered with the formation of new memories. Procedural memories are usually learnt through repetition and practice. Forgetting increased after each interval however little forgetting occurred at the start. Danaher (2008) found when people were exposed to adverts from competing brands within a short time frame, participants struggled to recognise the brands or their message. They showed how interference effects occurred due to the absence of any cues to aid retrieval. HM could not form episodic or semantic memories due to the destruction of his hippocampus and temporal lobes however he was able to form procedural memory through learning how to draw figures by looking at their reflection (mirror drawing). Recall the event in different orders such as in reverse order or at different stages. Logie (1995) suggested the VSS could be further sub-divided into a visual cache (CV) which stores visual material on colour and form and an inner-scribe (IS) which deals with spatial relationships, rehearsal and the transfer of information from the visual cache to the central executive. 7 officers were trained to use the cognitive interview while 9 used standard interview methods and formed the control group. It is unclear whether those with greater working memory spans have achieved this either through more practice in some form but it highlights how interference theories cannot be fully generalised to everyone. Witnesses to a real-life violent crime such as a gun shooting were found to have remarkable memories of the stressful situation even after observing the gunman be killed. the capital of France is Paris. resource may not be shared with any other person in any way. How To Revise For GCSE Psychology Step-by-Step, Chapter 8: Issues and Debates in Psychology, Outline the multi-store model of memory (6 marks), Evaluate the multi-store memory model (6 marks AS, 8-10 marks A-level), Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), Explain what normative social influence is (4 marks), Explain what informational social influence is (4 marks), Outline and evaluate normative and informational social influence explanations of conformity (12 marks for AS and 16 marks for A-level), Outline the working memory model (6 marks), Describe the strengths of the working memory model (4), Describe the weaknesses of the working memory model (4), Discuss the working memory model outlining the strengths and weaknesses (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), What is meant by proactive interference and retroactive interference? Participants were tasked with recalling consonant trigrams after varying intervals where they were tasked with counting backwards in threes. A major weakness to the working memory model is little is known about the main component, the Central Executive or how it works and there is evidence suggesting this is not unitary. The benefit of these key studies being conducted in the laboratory, however, was that such experiments can be easily replicated for validity and reliability checking as well as limiting confounding and extraneous variables to establish cause and effect relationships between anxiety and eyewitness testimony.

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